The majority of women with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN 3) are over 60 years of age and have a history of premalignant or malignant disease of the cervix. Although the natural history of VAIN is not well defined, high-grade lesions are premalignant. Ablative treatment with laser or 5-fluorouracil cream is commonly unsatisfactory. Several series have reported a low rate of recurrence and complications if VAIN 3 is treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy. This retrospective review reports the outcome of 14 patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy, with a dose of 34 to 45 Gy in 4.5- to 8.5-Gy fractions. Treatment was well tolerated with no severe early or late toxicity observed. At a median follow-up of 46 months 1 patient progressed to invasive carcinoma of the vagina; in another patient VAIN 3 persisted.