"Pseudomonas azotocolligans" ATCC 12417T (T = type strain), which was described as a diazotrophic bacterium, was reinvestigated to clarify its taxonomic position. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons demonstrated that this strain clusters phylogenetically with species of the genus Sphingomonas and represents a new species. The results of investigations of the fatty acid patterns, polar lipid profiles, and quinone system supported this placement. The substrate utilization profile and biochemical characteristics displayed no obvious similarity to the characteristics of any previously described species of the genus Sphingomonas. The new name Sphingomonas trueperi is proposed on the basis of these results and previously published data for the G + C content of the genomic DNA and the polyamine pattern.