In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder could be improved by adjunctive computer-assisted therapy. Eighteen participants who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for panic disorder were randomly assigned to a 12-session CBT (CBT 12) condition (D. H. Barlow & M. G. Craske, 1989) or to a 4-session computer-assisted CBT (CBT4-CA) condition. Palmtop computers, with a program developed to incorporate basic principles of CBT, were used by CBT4-CA clients whenever they felt anxious or wanted to practice the therapy techniques and were used by all participants as a momentary assessment tool. CBT4-CA clients carried the computer at all times and continued to use it for 8 weeks after termination of therapy. Analyses of clinically significant changes showed superiority of CBT12 at posttest on some measures; however, there were no differences at follow-up.