[Radiological diagnosis of viral encephalitis]

Nihon Rinsho. 1997 Apr;55(4):815-21.
[Article in Japanese]


Most of viral encephalitis may demonstrate no specific change on CT and MR images. Brain swelling, edema, abnormal density (CT) and abnormal intensity (MR) can be detected in herpes simplex encephalitis and enterovirus encephalitis (coxsackie, echo, polio). The common finding on CT and MRI in patients with HIV encephalopathy are atrophy, leukomalacia. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) shows multifocal oval or round white matter T2-hyperintensities on MR images. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) may present slight changes in the subcortical and periventricular white matter, as well as basal ganglia. Progressive disorder makes widespread T1-low, T2-high intensity area and atrophy. MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) shows multifocal subcortical hyper intense foci on T2-weighted studies. The deep white matter, brainstem, thalamus and cerebellum can be affected. Most of ADEM lesions resolve. Imaging findings of acute lymphocytic meningitis by echovirus and coxsackievirus are usually normal.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Encephalitis, Viral / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed