"Pap" testing and hysterectomy prevalence: a survey of communities with high and low cervical cancer rates

Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Oct;106(4):296-305. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112465.


There is an inverse relation between cervical cancer rates and income in Los Angeles County communities, and there is a positive association between level of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and income. Ethnic differences in cervical cancer rates and Pap testing are dependent on income. The relatively high rate of cervical cancer and low level of systematic screening in low income communities suggest that a community trial to assess the value of cytologic screening in reducing cervical cancer rates is feasible. Information on hysterectomy prevalence by type of procedure supports the idea that the long-observed decline in cervical cancer rates is in part attributable to a concomitant decrease in the ratio of subtotal to total hysterectomy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • California
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy*
  • Income
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • Papanicolaou Test*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Vaginal Smears*