The rat hepatocanalicular isoform (called mrp2) of the human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) has been cloned and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In both systems mrp2 expression induced a markedly increased efflux of intracellularly formed [14C]2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione. Injection of mrp2 cRNA into oocytes also stimulated efflux of [3H(N)]leukotriene C4. Furthermore, mrp2 mRNA was markedly decreased in the liver of the transport mutant TR rat, which has a congenital defect in the biliary excretion of glutathione-S conjugates and of other divalent organic anions. The study provides a direct demonstration of mrp2-mediated transport function and supports the concept that mrp2 represents the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) of mammalian liver.