Cyclin-dependent kinase regulation during G1 phase and cell cycle regulation by TGF-beta

Adv Cancer Res. 1997;71:165-207. doi: 10.1016/s0065-230x(08)60099-8.


The aim of this review is to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates cell cycle progression in different cell types. Particular attention is focused on the differences between these mechanisms in cells of epithelial origin and in mesenchymally derived cells. This is important because many transformed epithelial cells lose responsiveness to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, thus generating a more fibroblast-like phenotype. Loss of negative growth control, including a lack of response to growth-inhibitory factors, is a common feature of many tumor cells. G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and their inhibitors (ckis) are central to the pathways that regulate commitment to cellular division in response to positive as well as negative growth effectors. Many checkpoints are deregulated in oncogenesis, and this is often due to alterations in cyclin-cdk complexes. The loss of R-point regulation, in particular, can allow cell growth and division to proceed autonomously of external signals. This may occur due to either the aberrant expression of positive regulators, such as the cyclins and cdks, or the loss of negative regulators, such as the ckis. Beginning with a survey of the role of the cdks in the mammalian cell cycle, the review examines how cdk activity is modulated by cyclin binding, phosphorylation, and ckis, including the Ink4 proteins and the closely related inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Particular attention is paid to the role of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 in the mechanisms of TGF-beta-induced suppression or stimulation of the cell cycle and how these mechanisms contrast between epithelial cells and cells of mesenchymal origin. Other aspects of TGF-beta signal transduction are discussed, including its effects on cyclin and cdk expression in various cell types, and the downstream targets of cdks and their modulation by TGF-beta and other growth factors are also discussed. These include proteins of the retinoblastoma family, and the related modulation of the transcriptional activity of the E2F family members. Finally, the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins in oncogenesis is review in view of the findings described here.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins*
  • Cell Cycle*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / physiology*
  • Cyclins / physiology*
  • G1 Phase*
  • Humans
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Phosphorylation
  • Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins*


  • CDKN2B protein, human
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • Cyclins
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Retinoblastoma Protein
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases