The associations of psychosocial characteristics with both gender and smoking behavior were explored in a sample of 1552 grade-six students from 107 schools in one Ontario, Canada, school district. Ever smokers were more likely to have spending money: a part-time job; to have missed school in previous 2 months; perceive themselves to be below average or average in school; to have a mother, a father, and a sibling who smoke; to have consumed low alcohol and alcoholic beverages; and agree with fewer positive statements concerning second-hand smoke and the addictive properties of smoking. Ever smokers had more close friends who tried smoking, spent more time with friends, scored higher on depression, rebelliousness, and social conformity scales, reported more life events in the past year, and had lower scores for social support. More boys than girls had ever smoked (18.9% vs. 14.7%). Gender differences were found for sociodemographic, attitudes, social bonding, and psychosocial factors.