Forty-two postmortem formalin-fixed brains of known patients with AIDS were examined with T2-weighted MR imaging before brain cutting. The gross and microscopic brain findings were correlated with the T2 signal changes in the postmortem MR imaging. The brains included examples of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with involvement of the central brain and cerebellum. The authors also encountered the coexistence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and HIV encephalitis, and the T2 signal changes for each were compared. The T2 signal changes of leptomeningeal and perivascular space cryptococcal infection and CMV ependymitis are documented. Several expressions of primary cerebral lymphoma, including large nodules, choroid plexus infiltration, and diffuse microscopic sites of tumor also are assessed.