Coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant patients

Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Feb;24(2):216-21. doi: 10.1093/clinids/24.2.216.


Eight (0.59%) of 1,347 patients who underwent liver transplantation at the UCLA Medical Center (Los Angeles) developed coccidioidomycosis. Whereas only one case occurred during the first 8 years and 10 months of the UCLA Liver Transplant Program (February 1984 to December 1992), seven cases occurred within the following 23-month period (December 1992 to November 1994). The median time of onset for infection after transplantation was 8 weeks (range, 4-312 weeks). Clinical presentations of patients with coccidioidomycosis included pneumonia (six cases), pneumonia with meningitis (one case), hepatitis (one case), and monoarticular arthritis (one case). Despite therapy with amphotericin B alone (six cases) or amphotericin B plus fluconazole (two cases), infection was fatal in four of eight cases. As of this writing, the four surviving patients are receiving chronic maintenance therapy with either fluconazole (three patients) or itraconazole (one patient). These experiences show that coccidioidomycosis can be a serious and frequently fatal infection after liver transplantation and that the incidence of this disease appears to be increasing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B / therapeutic use
  • Coccidioidomycosis / etiology*
  • Coccidioidomycosis / therapy
  • Female
  • Fluconazole / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Amphotericin B
  • Fluconazole