Nutrition and other risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in postmenopausal women

Epidemiology. 1997 Jan;8(1):31-6. doi: 10.1097/00001648-199701000-00005.


Among 35,192 postmenopausal, predominantly white women in Iowa age 55-69 years and free of cancer, we collected baseline history, dietary information, and anthropometric data by mail in 1986. We ascertained the 8-year incidence (62 new cases) of renal cell carcinoma using the Iowa Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) register, the National Death Index, and mail follow-up. Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma included increasing age, increasing weight (either current, maximum adult weight, or weight at ages 18, 30, or 50 years), greater waist-to-hip ratio, and a history of blood transfusion. Total dietary calcium was associated independently with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma. No other dietary micro- or macronutrients or food groups were predictive of the development of renal cell carcinoma. Other previously identified risk factors were not confirmed: most notably, there was no increased risk from a history of hypertension, after adjustment for diuretic use. History of ever-use of diuretics was associated with a twofold increased risk of renal cancer, although the strength of association was markedly reduced after adjustment for age, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and calcium intake.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Anthropometry
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / etiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Iowa / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Postmenopause*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Survival Rate