We performed a two-site prospective, controlled interventional study of patients enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation to assess effects of advance directive education on completion of (1) living wills, (2) durable powers of attorney for health care (DPAHC), (3) patient-physician discussions about advance directives, and (4) discussions about life support, in addition to (5) patient impressions that their physicians understood their end-of-life preferences. The educational group had an increase (p < 0.05) in all five study outcomes compared with baseline values; the control group had an increase in three of five outcomes. The effect strength was greater in the educational compared with the control group for completion of DPAHC (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 12.9), advance directive discussions (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.3), initiation of life-support discussions (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.7), and development of patient assurance that their physicians understand their preferences (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.4). The educational intervention was an independent explanatory factor by multivariate analysis. We conclude that patients enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation are receptive to advance care planning, which is promoted by education on end-of-life issues.