We investigated the in vivo effect of coinfection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 11 HIV-1-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with no lung disease. Lung segments involved with pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly elevated HIV-1 branched DNA (bDNA) levels and p24 in BAL compared with lung segments uninvolved with tuberculosis or with BAL from patients with no lung disease. The BAL viral burden was higher than plasma HIV-1 in tuberculosis patients, indicating local production of virus. BAL HIV-1 bDNA declined over the course of treatment for tuberculosis in three patients who underwent serial bronchoscopies. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and HIV-1 bDNA particles were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.9, p < 0.01) in lung segments involved with tuberculosis. The deduced amino acid sequence of HIV-1 gp120 V3 region from involved segments of three patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed basic substitutions associated with altered viral phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of V3 sequences demonstrated that BAL HIV-1 RNA had diverged from plasma. These data support the conclusion that pulmonary tuberculosis enhances local HIV-1 replication in vivo.