The clinical management of patients with adenomas is interesting because of the adenomas' malignant potential, the availability of effective intervention by colonoscopy, and the increasing number of patients having adenomas detected and removed. The current literature on follow-up surveillance is reviewed, and surveillance intervals are suggested based on data from the National Polyp Study. Patients newly diagnosed with three or more adenomas, an adenoma of more than 0.5 cm, or with a family history of colorectal cancer should have surveillance colonoscopy at 3 years following the polypectomy. Surveillance of patients with single, small tubular adenomas can be extended to 5 or more years. Patients with large sessile or malignant adenomas need to have follow-up earlier. Identification and removal of adenomatous polyps have been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence.