Fifty women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) recorded their sleep quality, pain intensity, and attention to pain for 30 days, using palm-top computers programmed as electronic interviewers. They described their previous night's sleep quality within one-half hour of awakening each day, and at randomly selected times in the morning, afternoon, and evening rated their present pain in 14 regions and attention to pain during the last 30 min. We analyzed the 30-day aggregates cross-sectionally at the across-persons level and the pooled data set of 1500 person-days at the within-persons level after adjusting for between-persons variation and autocorrelation. Poorer sleepers tended to report significantly more pain. A night of poorer sleep was followed by a significantly more painful day, and a more painful day was followed by a night of poorer sleep. Pain attention and sleep were unrelated at the across-persons level of analysis. But there was a significant bi-directional within-person association between pain attention and sleep quality that was not explained by changes in pain intensity.