Management of simple snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and moderate sleep apnea syndrome

Sleep. 1996 Nov;19(9 Suppl):S101-10. doi: 10.1093/sleep/19.suppl_9.s101.


The spectrum of respiratory sleep disorders has been extended in the last years to include conditions that are less well defined than severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Moderate OSA, snoring, and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) represent three conditions in which there are still unresolved pathophysiological, epidemiological, and clinical questions. Therefore, the therapeutic approach remains unclear. We have tried to define these entities and to review the respective indications and efficacy of pharmacological treatment, weight loss, sleep posture, oral appliances, upper airway surgery, and finally, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). From these data, we also aim to define strategies of treatment for moderate OSA, snoring, and UARS. However, these conditions are likely to be particularly appropriate for randomized trials comparing different modalities of treatment that may be the only way to validate these treatment strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Airway Obstruction / surgery*
  • Airway Resistance*
  • Humans
  • Orthodontic Appliances, Removable
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration
  • Posture
  • Protriptyline / therapeutic use
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / complications*
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / drug therapy
  • Snoring / complications*
  • Snoring / rehabilitation*
  • Weight Loss


  • Protriptyline