The PSM antigen is an exciting new molecule with many potentially valuable applications. Further research with PSM may help us to elucidate the complex process of prostatic neoplasia better. Current avenues of research with PSM include the generation of new and improved monoclonal antibodies targeting different portions of PSM and PSM', which may improve the results of imaging and targeting prostate cancer. Gene therapy using the PSM promoter to drive prostate-specific expression of various cytokines and other factors is another exciting potential application deserving of attention, and refinement of serum PSM assays may greatly add to the present array of diagnostic modalities offered to patients with suspected prostate cancer. Thus, PSM is a potentially valuable addition to our armamentarium of prostate markers. Additionally, a host of other potential markers to increase our understanding of the complex biology of the normal and malignant prostate are on the horizon. Just how far away that horizon is awaits further basic and clinical investigations.