In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication and RNA biogenesis occur in the cell nucleus, whereas protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm. Integration of these activities depends on selective transport of proteins and ribonucleoprotein particles between the two compartments. Transport across the nuclear envelope occurs through large multiprotein structures, termed nuclear pore complexes. It is signal-mediated and requires both energy and soluble factors, including shuttling carriers. Here I summarize current understanding of nucleocytoplasmic transport and illustrate the importance of regulated transport for signal transduction.