Development and validation of a genetic algorithm for flexible docking

J Mol Biol. 1997 Apr 4;267(3):727-48. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1996.0897.


Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic algorithm to explore the full range of ligand conformational flexibility with partial flexibility of the protein, and satisfies the fundamental requirement that the ligand must displace loosely bound water on binding. Numerous enhancements and modifications have been applied to the original technique resulting in a substantial increase in the reliability and the applicability of the algorithm. The advanced algorithm has been tested on a dataset of 100 complexes extracted from the Brookhaven Protein DataBank. When used to dock the ligand back into the binding site, GOLD achieved a 71% success rate in identifying the experimental binding mode.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Binding Sites
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Models, Molecular
  • NADP / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / chemistry
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / metabolism


  • Ligands
  • Proteins
  • NADP
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase

Associated data

  • PDB/3DFR