Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) may play an etiologic role in the pathogenesis of KS. In an attempt to assess KSHV/HHV-8 infection, an ELISA was developed using an 18-amino acid peptide from a putative minor capsid protein of KSHV/HHV-8 conjugated to bovine serum albumin. Overall, sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive patients with KS had a higher reactivity in the assay than did sera from HIV-1-positive patients without KS (P = .018). Of 35 HIV-1-positive patients with KS, 60% were antibody positive, compared with 27% of 33 HIV-1-positive patients without KS. Of 30 healthy blood donors, 20% were antibody positive. The ELISA responses did not correlate with antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus. Given the homology and antigenic relatedness between KSHV/HHV-8 and Epstein-Barr virus, serologic assays involving unique KSHV/HHV-8 peptides may prove to be valuable in defining the epidemiology and clinical expression of this virus.