Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is an autosomal dominant or sporadic disorder characterized by periodic, reversible attacks of muscle weakness. Mutations in the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor alpha 1-subunit that functions as a calcium channel (CACNL1A3) cause hypoKPP. We studied a group of 45 hypoKPP probands and demonstrated mutations in 30 of them. When compared with patients in whom CACNL1A3 mutations were not identified, those with mutations had an earlier age of onset and more often had a family history of hypoKPP. To date, three mutations have been identified. The R1239G mutation has only been found in one family. Of the 30 probands with recognized mutations, R528H accounted for 43% and R1239H was seen in 53%. Age of onset and potassium levels during attacks were lower in patients with the R1239H mutation than those with R528H. Cardiac dysrhythmias co-segregated with hypoKPP in one small kindred with the R528H mutation. No mutations were identified in exons of the gene encoding the S4 segments of domains one and three or the cytoplasmic loop between domains two and three. In addition to the 45 hypoKPP probands, an additional 11 probands with clinical variants of hypoKPP (three thyrotoxic hypoKPP and eight Andersen syndrome patients) were examined for CACNL1A3 mutations and none were found.