Bitter taste transduction of denatonium in the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus

J Neurosci. 1997 May 15;17(10):3580-7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.17-10-03580.1997.


Bitter substances are a structurally diverse group of compounds that appear to act via several transduction mechanisms. The bitter-tasting denatonium ion has been proposed to act via two different G-protein-regulated pathways, one involving inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate and raised intracellular calcium levels, the other involving phosphodiesterase and membrane depolarization via a cyclic nucleotide-suppressible cation channel. The aim of the present study was to examine these transduction mechanisms in taste cells of the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus by calcium-imaging and whole-cell recording. Denatonium benzoate increased intracellular calcium levels and induced an outward current independently of extracellular calcium. The denatonium-induced increase in intracellular calcium was inhibited by U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, and by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium transport into intracellular stores. The denatonium-induced outward current was blocked by GDP-beta-S, a blocker of G-protein activation. Neither resting nor denatonium-induced intracellular calcium levels were affected by inhibition of phosphodiesterase (with IBMX) or adenylate cyclase (with SQ22536) or by raising intracellular cyclic nucleotides directly (with cell permeant analogs). Our results support the hypothesis that denatonium is transduced via a G-protein cascade involving phospholipase C, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and raised intracellular calcium levels. Our results do not support the hypothesis that denatonium is transduced via phosphodiesterase and cAMP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology
  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Adenine / pharmacology
  • Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP / analogs & derivatives
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Estrenes / pharmacology
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Fura-2
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate / metabolism
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
  • Membrane Potentials / drug effects
  • Necturus
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Pyrrolidinones / pharmacology
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Ryanodine / pharmacology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Taste / physiology*
  • Taste Buds / drug effects
  • Taste Buds / physiology*
  • Thapsigargin / pharmacology
  • Virulence Factors, Bordetella / pharmacology


  • Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
  • Calcium Channels
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Estrenes
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
  • Pyrrolidinones
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Virulence Factors, Bordetella
  • 1-(6-((3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione
  • Ryanodine
  • 9-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)-adenine
  • denatonium benzoate
  • Thapsigargin
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate
  • Cyclic AMP
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cyclic GMP
  • Adenine
  • Calcium
  • 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine
  • Fura-2