The European Union recently adopted the main International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations on radiation protection. The annual limit for the members of the public on continuous exposure is 1 mSv/year, with a constraint dose of 0.3 mSv. Such regulation may raise a number of practical problems for 131I-treated patients, particularly those receiving radioiodine as outpatients. The radiation exposure evaluated on the basis of dose rate assessments and dose occupancy usually leads to results significantly higher than those obtained by direct measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters carried for 2-3 weeks by the family members of the patient. From these direct measurements, it appears that reasonable instructions given to 131I-treated patients allow us to respond positively to the ICRP recommendations without disturbing too excessively the patient's daily life. Educational action remains essential in radiation protection.