Modeling, chemistry, and biology of the benzolactam analogues of indolactam V (ILV). 2. Identification of the binding site of the benzolactams in the CRD2 activator-binding domain of PKCdelta and discovery of an ILV analogue of improved isozyme selectivity

J Med Chem. 1997 Apr 25;40(9):1316-26. doi: 10.1021/jm960875h.


Protein kinase C (PKC) is a complex enzyme system comprised of at least 11 isozymes that serves to mediate numerous extracellular signals which generate lipid second messengers. The discovery of isozyme-selective activators and inhibitors (modulators) of PKC is crucial to ascertaining the role of the individual isozymes in physiological and pathophysiological processes and to manipulating their function. The discovery of such small molecule modulators of PKC is at present a largely unmet pharmacological need. Herein we detail our modeling studies which reveal how the natural product indolactam V (ILV) and its 8-membered ring analogue, the benzolactam 15, bind to the CRD2 activator domain of PKC. These modeling studies reveal that not all PKC ligands possess a common pharmacophore, and further suggest an important role of specific hydrophobic contacts in the PKC-ligand interaction. The modeling studies find strong experimental support from mutagenesis studies on PKC alpha that reveal the crucial role played by the residues proline 11, leucine 20, leucine 24, and glycine 27. Next, we describe the synthesis of two 8-substituted benzolactams starting from L-phenylalanine and characterize their isozyme selectivity; one of the two benzolactams exhibits improved isozyme selectivity relative to the n-octyl-ILV. Lastly, we report inhibition of cellular proliferation of two different breast carcinoma cell lines by the benzolactam 5 and show that the compound preferentially down-regulates PKCbeta in both cell lines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / chemical synthesis
  • Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Binding Sites
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Indoles / pharmacology
  • Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Lactams / chemical synthesis
  • Lactams / chemistry
  • Lactams / metabolism
  • Lactams / pharmacology*
  • Lyngbya Toxins / chemistry
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Molecular Structure
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Protein Kinase C / chemistry
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Indoles
  • Isoenzymes
  • Lactams
  • Lyngbya Toxins
  • teleocidins
  • indolactam V
  • Protein Kinase C