Leiomyoma of the oral cavity: a light microscopic and immunohistochemical study with review of the literature from 1884 to 1992

Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1994 Jan;30B(1):1-7. doi: 10.1016/0964-1955(94)90043-4.


Leiomyoma is the most common benign neoplasm in the uterus and stomach but is rare in the oral cavity. There were only 5 oral cases in a series of 7748 leiomyomas of all sites. Benign smooth muscle neoplasms are classified into leiomyoma (solid leiomyoma), angiomyoma (vascular leiomyoma) and epithelioid leiomyoma (leiomyoblastoma). 6 cases diagnosed as leiomyoma were retrieved from the files of two oral biopsy services over the past 25 years. A light microscopic study including trichrome and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH) stains, and an immunohistochemical study with the following markers: desmin, muscle specific actin, myoglobin, vimentin, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, factor VIII and Ulex europeus were done with suitable controls. The haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains supported a diagnosis of leiomyoma in all 6 cases but PTAH was positive in only 3 of them. The immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma in 3 cases. The other 3 were identified as granular cell tumour, myofibroma and neurofibroma, respectively. The review of the literature contributed the following data: mean age was 41 and median age 39 in 134/142 patients. A male sex prevalence 72/137 patients (54.0%) was noted. The lips were the most common site with 39 cases (27.46%) followed by the tongue 26 (18.30%), cheeks and palate 22 (15.49%), gingiva 12 (8.45%), and mandible 8 (5.63%). Prognosis of oral leiomyomas is excellent. Immunohistochemistry is a precise and reliable method for definitive diagnosis of oral leiomyoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiomyoma / pathology
  • Biopsy
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Gingival Neoplasms / pathology
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Infant
  • Leiomyoma / epidemiology
  • Leiomyoma / pathology*
  • Lip Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Palatal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tongue Neoplasms / pathology