Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1 (CDG1 or Jaeken syndrome) is the prototype of a class of genetic multisystem disorders characterized by defective glycosylation of glycoconjugates. It is mostly a severe disorder which presents neonatally. There is a severe encephalopathy with axial hypotonia, abnormal eye movements and pronounced psychomotor retardation, as well as a peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar hypoplasia and retinitis pigmentosa. The patients show a peculiar distribution of subcutaneous fat, nipple retraction and hypogonadism. There is a 20% lethality in the first years of life due to severe infections, liver insufficiency or cardiomyopathy. CDG1 shows an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and has been mapped to chromosome 16p. Most patients show a deficiency of phosphomannomutase (PMM)8, an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of GDP-mannose. We have cloned the PMM1 gene, which is on chromosome 22q13 (ref.9). We now report the identification of a second human PMM gene, PMM2, which is located on 16p13 and which encodes a protein with 66% identity to PMM1. We found eleven different missense mutations in PMM2 in 16 CDG1 patients from different geographical origins and with a documented phosphomannomutase deficiency. Our results give conclusive support to the biochemical finding that the phosphomannomutase deficiency is the basis for CDG1.