Objective: To determine plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin I (Ang I), and aldosterone (ALDO) values in clinically normal cats and hypertensive cats with renal disease, and the relation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activation in response to treatment with beta-blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Animals: 5 normotensive healthy control cats and 12 Untreated hypertensive cats with chronic renal disease.
Procedure: Untreated hypertensive cats received either propanolol (n = 6) or enalapril (n = 6) as initial antihypertensive treatment. PRA and baseline plasma Ang I and ALDO concentrations were measured prior to treatment. The difference in Ang I values at 2 hours (Ang I generated) and at time 0 (baseline Ang I) was divided by 2 to give the PRA value. Values for PRA, Ang I, and ALDO were obtained from 5 clinically normal, normotensive cats, and compared with those of hypertensive cats.
Results: Mean +/- SD PRA and baseline Ang I concentration were not significantly different between normotensive and hypertensive cats. Mean ALDO concentration was significantly (P = 0.0235) higher in hypertensive cats with renal disease (186.18 +/- 145.15 pg/ml), compared with that in normotensive controls (51.1 +/- 16.76 pg/ml). Eight hypertensive cats with ALDO concentration > 2 SD above the mean concentration in control cats had low (n = 3), normal (n = 4), or high (n = 1) PRA, suggesting variable activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in the hypertensive state. Overall, enalapril was effective long-term monotherapy in only 1 of 6 cats, and propranolol was ineffective as long-term monotherapy.
Clinical relevance: Evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cats with hypertension associated with renal disease may lead to greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disorder. In addition, identification of biochemical markers in hypertensive cats may permit selection of appropriate antihypertensive drugs. Propranolol and enalapril were ineffective antihypertensive agents in most cats of this study.