Sequence and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse growth inhibitory factor gene

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1997 Apr;17(2):235-43. doi: 10.1023/a:1026369913405.


1. The growth inhibitory factor (GIF) is a 68-amino acid protein which is capable of inhibiting the growth of neuronal cells in vitro. 2. We have cloned and sequenced the 5'-flanking region of the mouse GIF gene, which spans from the transcriptional initiation site to the -1854 nucleotide. 3. This region contains sequences homologous to hgcs, SPE, and the JCV silencer domain that functions in a glial cell specific manner. This region also contains two metal responding elements and putative binding sites for AP-1, AP-2, Sp-1, SP-2, NF-1, and CREB. 4. An analysis of the reporter plasmids containing the various regions of the 5'-flanking sequence revealed that the region indeed functioned in a tissue-specific manner in glial cells and that the region between -328 and 175 is responsible for suppression, while the region between -175 and -49 is involved in the activation of gene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Genomic Library
  • Glioma
  • Growth Inhibitors / biosynthesis
  • Growth Inhibitors / genetics
  • Metallothionein 3
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics*
  • Neuroglia / metabolism*
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Growth Inhibitors
  • Metallothionein 3
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins