American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The Female Athlete Triad

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 May;29(5):i-ix. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199705000-00037.


The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome occurring in physically active girls and women. Its interrelated components are disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Pressure placed on young women to achieve or maintain unrealistically low body weight underlies development of the Triad. Adolescents and women training in sports in which low body weight is emphasized for athletic activity or appearance are at greatest risk. Girls and women with one component of the Triad should be screened for the others. Alone or in combination, Female Athlete Triad disorders can decrease physical performance and cause morbidity and mortality. More research is needed on its causes, prevalence, treatment, and consequences. All individuals working with physically active girls and women should be educated about the Female Athlete Triad and develop plans to prevent, recognize, treat, and reduce its risks.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amenorrhea* / diagnosis
  • Amenorrhea* / etiology
  • Amenorrhea* / prevention & control
  • Amenorrhea* / therapy
  • Body Composition
  • Child
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders* / etiology
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders* / prevention & control
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders* / therapy
  • Female
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis* / diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis* / etiology
  • Osteoporosis* / prevention & control
  • Osteoporosis* / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Sports*
  • Syndrome