To investigate the prevalence, significance, and specificity of IgG isotype anti-beta 2-Glycoprotein I antibodies (a-beta 2-GPI) in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG-a-beta 2-GPI and tested sera from 61 patients with autoimmune disorders (AID), 39 patients with APS and 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without APS, 139 patients with various infectious diseases (hepatitis C virus infection, human immunodeficiency virus infection, Q fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, syphilis) and 97 healthy control subjects. Using irradiated plates coated with human beta 2-GPI, we showed that in the sera of patients with AID, optical densities from the coated wells were significantly higher than those from the noncoated ones (p = 0.0001). In this assay, intra-assay and inter-assay variation coefficients ranged between 4% and 10%. Clinical evaluation showed that IgG-a-beta 2-GPI were found in 23 of 61 patients with AID but in only one patient with an infectious disease. The presence of the IgG-a-beta 2-GPI in association with APS (p = 0.005) was statistically significant with high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (87.5%) but with low sensitivity (54%), and was significantly associated with venous thrombosis (p = 0.0025). In addition, the IgG-a-beta 2-GPI levels were highly correlated with those of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (p < 0.001). In contrast to a-beta 2-GPI, aCL were found with a high prevalence (40%) in patients with infectious diseases. Because of their high specificity, anti-beta 2-GPI antibodies appear to be useful tools in the evaluation of the risk of APS. However, because of their low sensitivity, their detection needs to be associated with that of aCL.