Novel approaches for the generation of more effective vaccines for HIV-1 are of significant importance. In this report we analyze the immunogenicity and efficacy of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine encoding env, rev and gag/pol in a chimpanzee model system. The immunized animals developed specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Animals were challenged with a heterologous chimpanzee titered stock of HIV-1 SF2 virus and followed for 48 weeks after challenge. Polymerase chain reaction coupled with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) results indicated infection in the control animal, whereas those animals vaccinated with the DNA constructs were protected from the establishment of infection. These studies serve as an important benchmark for the use of DNA vaccine technology for the production of protective immune responses.