In vitro resistance of HIV-1 against high levels of HBY 097 ((S)-4-isopropoxycarbonyl-6-methoxy-3-(methylthiomethyl)-3, 4-dihydro-quinoxaline-2(1H)-thione) and other quinoxaline nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is characterized by a specific amino acid substitution in the reverse transcriptase (RT), Gly 190Glu. This change results in decreased RT polymerase activity and in reduced growth properties of the corresponding viral variant. Here we show that the appearance of the crippling mutation at codon 190 can be prevented by lowering the selective pressure exerted by HBY 097. Under low selective pressure an accumulation of other NNRTI-specific mutations is observed. Up to five NNRTI-specific substitutions were detected in some of these virus lineages. In addition, we report novel RT amino acid changes which were not observed previously, including Val106lle, Val106Leu, and Gly190Thr. HBY 097 selects for different mutational patterns under high and low selective pressure conditions, respectively. Thus, the type of mutations which appear in HIV-infected patients undergoing therapy may be determined by the levels of the selecting drug.