Functional antioxidant responsive elements

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 May 13;94(10):5361-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.94.10.5361.


Exposure of human and rodent cells to a wide variety of chemoprotective compounds confers resistance against a broad set of carcinogens. For a subset of the chemoprotective compounds, protection is generated by an increase in the abundance of protective enzymes like glutathione S-transferases (GST). Antioxidant responsive elements (AREs) mediate the transcriptional induction of a battery of genes which comprise much of this chemoprotective response system. Past studies identified a necessary ARE "core" sequence of RTGACnnnGC, but this sequence alone is insufficient to mediate induction. In this study, the additional sequences necessary to define a sufficient, functional ARE are identified through systematic mutational analysis of the murine GST Ya ARE. Introduction of the newly identified necessary nucleotides into the regions flanking a nonresponsive, ARE-like, GST-Mu promoter sequence produced an inducible element. A screen of the GenBank database with the newly identified ARE consensus identified 16 genes which contained the functional ARE consensus sequence in their promoters. Included within this group was an ARE sequence from the murine ferritin-L promoter that mediated induction when tested. In an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, the ferritin-L ARE was bound by ARE-binding protein 1, a protein previously identified as the likely mediator of the chemoprotective response. A three-level ARE classification system is presented to account for the distinct induction strengths observed in our mutagenesis studies. A model of the ARE as a composite regulatory site, where multiple transcription factors interact, is presented to account for the complex characteristics of ARE-mediated chemoprotective gene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Base Composition
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
  • Consensus Sequence
  • Ferritins / biosynthesis
  • Ferritins / genetics
  • Glutathione Transferase / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Information Systems
  • Liver Neoplasms
  • Mice
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Antioxidants
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Ferritins
  • Glutathione Transferase