In an IDDM model mouse which was inoculated with a diabetogenic variant, DK-27, of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus, the relation between a stable glycated hemoglobin A1C (St-HbA1C) level and plasma glucose level (PGL) in the progress of diabetes was studied. The St-HbA1C level and PGL were examined every 2 weeks for 10 weeks in normal male DBA/2 and IDDM-onset mice. PGLs of normal control mice did not change, but their St-HbA1C levels were slightly increased by 0.52 to 1.03%. On the other hand, in IDDM mice, their PGLs were greatly increased (> 400 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia was maintained throughout this observation period, with their St-HbA1C noticeably increased to 3.8% according to the progress of diabetes for 10 weeks. A highly significant correlation between St-HbA1C levels and averaged PGLs for the past weeks was found in IDDM mice. To examine the reflection of St-HbA1C levels to delicately varied PGLs, we also estimated both values in IDDM mice which were treated with insulin at a minimal effective dose once a day for 4 weeks. The St-HbA1C levels in insulin-injected IDDM mice were significantly lower than those in control IDDM mice. These findings suggest that the estimation of the St-HbA1C level is useful in following up blood glucose control in a long-term therapeutical study with small laboratory animals.