In vivo effects of an imidazoline devoid of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties, antazoline, on insulin secretion and glycemia were investigated both in fasted rats and dogs. In both species, antazoline (1.5 mg/kg i.v.) transiently increased insulinemia without affecting basal plasma glucose levels. In contrast, during an i.v. glucose tolerance test, antazoline markedly potentiated insulin release and thus increased the glucose disappearance rate. In rats, during an oral glucose tolerance test, the intragastric administration of antazoline (1.5 mg/kg) clearly enhanced insulin secretion and reduced hyperglycemia. In dogs provided with a venous pancreatico-duodenal bypass, antazoline (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) induced an immediate and transient increase in insulin and somatostatin but not in glucagon pancreatico-duodenal outputs. In conclusion, intravenously and orally administered, the imidazoline antazoline is able to stimulate insulin secretion in vivo and improve glucose tolerance. The imidazoline compounds could therefore have a potential therapeutic relevance as new antihyperglycemic insulinotropic agents.