Molecular cloning of diadenosine tetraphosphatase from pig small intestinal mucosa and identification of sequence blocks common to diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases and phosphorylases

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997 Feb;29(2):317-23. doi: 10.1016/s1357-2725(96)00153-7.


Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) pyrophosphohydrolase is the enzyme responsible for reducing intracellular levels of the stress-responsive nucleotide diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate. In order to gain more information on the relationships between the enzymes hydrolysing diadenosine polyphosphates in different eukaryotes, the Ap4A hydrolase and a corresponding cDNA have been isolated from pig small intestinal mucosa by standard procedures. The enzyme is a typical mammalian Ap4A hydrolase (Km = 0.8 microM) being sensitive to inhibition by fluoride (Ki = 24 microM) and adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ki = 10 nM) and yielding ATP and AMP as products. A low Km Ap4A hydrolase (Km = 0.3 microM) was also isolated from rabbit small intestinal mucosa. These enzymes differ from the rat intestinal mucosal hydrolase, which has much higher values of Km for Ap4A and Ki for adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate. A cDNA encoding the pig enzyme was isolated from a pig ileum cDNA library. The derived amino acid sequence of the 16.8 kDa gene product shows 88% identity and 96% similarity to that of the human enzyme. The sequence has the same modification of the MutT motif found in the human enzyme in which a threonine residue replaces a hydrophobic amino acid. Sequences comparisons among eukaryotic diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases and phosphorylases reveal two blocks of amino acid similarity, including a motif, Z[AD]Gx[ED]AGQ, which may be involved in polyphosphate binding by the hydrolases, and an invariant histidine residue that may be involved in catalysis. These sequence similarities may have arisen by convergent evolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / enzymology*
  • Intestine, Small / enzymology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / genetics
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Swine


  • Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
  • Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
  • diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolase
  • bis(5'-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical)

Associated data

  • GENBANK/D64006
  • GENBANK/U28374
  • GENBANK/U30313
  • GENBANK/U32615
  • GENBANK/U38619
  • GENBANK/U46922
  • SWISSPROT/P16550
  • SWISSPROT/P22108
  • SWISSPROT/P49348