Diabetic nephropathy is the single most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Recently, several major therapeutic interventions have been developed and shown to slow or halt the progression of renal failure in patients with diabetes and diabetic kidney disease. Studies have shown that in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and proteinuria, lowering systemic blood pressure slows the rate of decline in renal function and improves patients' survival. In the recently completed trial of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in diabetic nephropathy, ACE inhibitors were specifically shown to decrease dramatically the risk of doubling of serum creatinine or reaching a combined outcome of end-stage renal disease or death independent of their effect on systemic blood pressure. In studies with small numbers of patients, dietary protein restriction has also been shown to slow the rate of decline of renal function. New potential interventions currently undergoing study include treatment with aldose reductase inhibitors, treatment with inhibitors of the formation of advanced glycosylation end-products, treatment of dyslipidemia, and a variety of other less well-studied interventions.