Collagens can be divided into two groups, i.e., fibrillar and non-fibrillar collagens. Short-chain collagens, a subgroup of non-fibrillar collagens, comprises collagen type VIII and type X. These two collagen types show several similarities in structure and possibly also in function. Type VIII collagen appears to be secreted by rapidly proliferating cells. It can be found in basement membranes and may serve as a molecular bridge between different types of matrix molecules. In different tissues this collagen type may serve different functions. Stabilization of membranes, angiogenesis, and interactions with other extracellular matrix molecules. Since collagen type X is produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes, this collagen type can only be found in matrix of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal growth plate cartilage. Collagen type X is probably involved in the process of mineralization, endochondral ossification, and is also proposed to play a role in angiogenesis. Collagen types VII and X may be involved in matrix and bone disorders. Their structure, function, and involvement in pathology are discussed in this review.