Coxsackievirus A21 binds to decay-accelerating factor but requires intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for cell entry

J Virol. 1997 Jun;71(6):4736-43. doi: 10.1128/JVI.71.6.4736-4743.1997.


It is becoming increasingly apparent that many viruses employ multiple receptor molecules in their cell entry mechanisms. The human enterovirus coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) has been reported to bind to the N-terminal domain of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and undergo limited replication in ICAM-1-expressing murine L cells. In this study, we show that in addition to binding to ICAM-1, CAV21 binds to the first short consensus repeat (SCR) of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Dual antibody blockade using both anti-ICAM-1 (domain 1) and anti-DAF (SCR1) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is required to completely abolish binding and replication of high-titered CAV21. However, the binding of CAV21 to DAF, unlike that to ICAM-1, does not initiate a productive cell infection. The capacity of an anti-DAF (SCR3) MAb to block CAV21 infection but not binding, coupled with immunoprecipitation data from chemical cross-linking studies, indicates that DAF and ICAM-1 are closely associated on the cell surface. It is therefore suggested that DAF may function as a low-affinity attachment receptor either enhancing viral presentation or providing a viral sequestration site for subsequent high-affinity binding to ICAM-1.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • CD55 Antigens / metabolism*
  • CHO Cells
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Coxsackievirus Infections / microbiology
  • Cricetinae
  • Enterovirus / growth & development*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • CD55 Antigens
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases
  • Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase