Background: Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital condition, which can now be detected preoperatively by imaging studies.
Methods: We report a case of duplicated gallbladder with symptomatic unilobar gallstones. Appropriate biliary workup (ultrasound, oral cholecystography, and intravenous cholangiography) allowed a correct preoperative diagnosis.
Results: Laparoscopic treatment included selective removal of the diseased accessory gallbladder. However, postoperative acute cholecystitis and symptomatic gallstone occurred in the remaining main gallbladder, and laparoscopic reintervention was required 27 months later.
Conclusions: This case illustrates the need for complete removal of both gallbladders during initial surgery. Precise intraoperative recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy-including abnormalities-is highlighted to avoid mistakes during surgery.