Human endometrium is unique since it is the only tissue in the body that bleeds at regular intervals. In addition, abnormal endometrial bleeding is one of the most common manifestations of gynecological diseases, and is a prime indication for hysterectomy. Here, we report on a novel human gene, endometrial bleeding associated factor (ebaf), whose strong expression in endometrium was associated with abnormal endometrial bleeding. In normal human endometrium, this gene was transiently expressed before and during menstrual bleeding. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA of ebaf was expressed in the stroma without any significant mRNA expression in the endometrial glands or endothelial cells. The predicted protein sequence of ebaf showed homology with and structural features of the members of TGF-beta superfamily. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the ebaf gene is located on human chromosome 1 at band q42.1. Thus, ebaf is a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily and an endometrial tissue factor whose expression is associated with normal menstrual and abnormal endometrial bleeding.