Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is considered a cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. This organism also is a cause of genital infections in women, and has been detected in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United Kingdom and Denmark, although its prevalence is unknown in Japanese women.
Goals: To determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in the cervices of women with cervicitis or adnexitis as well as in asymptomatic pregnant women in Japan.
Study design: Two hundred women who attended obstetric and gynecologic clinics were recruited. Sixty-four women had cervicitis, 53 had adnexitis, and 3 had both. Eighty pregnant women were asymptomatic for infection. Cervical swab specimens were examined for M. genitalium using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay.
Results: Five (7.8%) of 64 women with cervicitis and 3 (5.7%) of 53 women with adnexitis were positive for M. genitalium. After exclusion of Chlamydia-positive women, 5 (8.8%) of 57 women with cervicitis, and 2 (4.1%) of 49 women with adnexitis were positive for M. genitalium. In none of 80 asymptomatic pregnant women, including a Chlamydia-positive woman, was M. genitalium detected. Overall, 7 (6.6%) of 106 women with Chlamydia-negative genital infections were positive for the M. genitalium. This prevalence was significantly greater than that in asymptomatic pregnant women (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: A significantly greater prevalence of M. genitalium was demonstrated in Japanese women with Chlamydia-negative cervicitis or adnexitis, compared with that in asymptomatic pregnant women. This study suggests that M. genitalium may play a pathogenic role in a portion of cases with Chlamydia-negative genital infections.