The effect of an IL-1 receptor antagonist on recurrence of hyperglycaemia after syngeneic pancreatic islet transplantation to spontaneously diabetic female NOD mice was investigated. The transplanted animals were treated with either the receptor antagonist (8.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 12-14 days) or PBS, delivered by subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. In the control animals, a transient normoglycaemia was achieved, but hyperglycaemia was generally observed 6 days after islet transplantation. Administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist had a clear protective effect against recurrence of hyperglycaemia until day 14, but after cessation of drug delivery hyperglycaemia re-appeared. The results indicate that continuous administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist can prevent recurrence of the diabetogenic process in NOD mice. IL-1 receptor antagonist may therefore become a useful adjuvant immunomodulating therapy after human islet transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.