An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene influences the level of serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and has been associated with risk of several cardiovascular conditions. The relationship to blood pressure remains uncertain, however. We conducted a population-based survey in Kingston, Jamaica, to examine the association between angiotensin converting enzyme genotype, angiotensin converting enzyme serum activity and blood pressure. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured and genotyping performed for the I/D polymorphism in 500 community residents. The overall prevalence of the D allele was 59.3%. Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype was not significantly related to blood pressure (P = .16), although it did influence angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, leading to an increase of 35% among individuals with the DD as compared with II genotype. Angiotensin converting enzyme levels were significantly higher in hypertensives as compared with normotensives (P < .05). A modest correlation was observed between blood pressure and angiotensin converting enzyme activity among untreated individuals (r = 0.11; P = .04), although this did not persist in multivariate analysis. A relationship between body mass index and angiotensin converting enzyme activity was identified in both men and women that was independent of genotype. These data demonstrate findings among blacks which are consistent with other studies and suggest a relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme genotype, and serum activity which is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The potential role of ACE on blood pressure control in the population remains uncertain.