The effects of exercise training and of its interaction with the genotype on components of energy expenditure and related hormones were examined in young male monozygotic twins. Energy intake was maintained at the pretraining level for a 93-day training period. The estimated net energy deficit induced by training was 244 MJ and was associated with a 5-kg body weight loss that was almost entirely explained by body fat loss. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was significantly decreased by 8% after training despite the preservation of fat-free mass (FFM). Accordingly, plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, NE appearance rate, and plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, and total thyroxine (T4) were lower after training. The energy cost of standardized exercise was also reduced after the training program. A modest to significant within-twin-pair resemblance was observed for absolute changes in the RMR, thermic effect of food, energy cost of exercise, NE clearance, and plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones. These results suggest that when exercise training is associated with a substantial negative energy balance, energy expenditure and levels of related hormones are decreased, and this effect is partly accounted for by heredity.