Osteomyelitis represents a pyogenic infection of the bone and marrow. The diagnosis is based on specific criteria and often is difficult to make. Herein we present 2 cases initially thought to represent osteitis pubis but subsequently proved to be osteomyelitis and compare the 2 entities with emphasis on differential diagnosis and treatment. Despite certain differentiating characteristics the correct diagnosis is often uncertain without histologic examination. Since the treatment of these 2 entities is quite different equivocal cases should undergo surgical exploration and bone curettage. This procedure will enable definite diagnosis to be made and proper treatment to be instituted.