To clarify the interactions between hippocampal cholinergic and adrenergic systems in working memory function of rats, the effects of hippocampal muscarinic receptor blockade combined with noradrenaline depletion on this behavior were examined with a three-panel runway task. Intrahippocampal administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine at a dose of 3.2 micrograms/side significantly increased the number of errors (attempts to pass through two incorrect panels of the three panel-gates at four choice points) in the working memory task, whereas the 0.32 microgram/side dose of scopolamine did not affect working memory errors. Administration of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) at 50 mg/kg IP caused a marked reduction in hippocampal noradrenaline concentration, but it had no effect on working memory errors. Intrahippocampal administration of 0.32 microgram/side scopolamine, the behaviorally ineffective dose in intact rats, significantly increased the number of working memory errors in the noradrenaline-depleted animals. These results suggest that hippocampal muscarinic/noradrenergic interactions are involved in neural processes mediating working memory function of rats.