Atrial fibrillation follow-up investigation of rhythm management -- the AFFIRM study design. The Planning and Steering Committees of the AFFIRM study for the NHLBI AFFIRM investigators

Am J Cardiol. 1997 May 1;79(9):1198-202.


The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Study is a randomized evaluation of treatment of atrial fibrillation by 1 of 2 strategies: ventricular rate control and anticoagulation versus rhythm control and anticoagulation. The primary end point is total mortality, analyzed by intention-to-treat. Secondary end points are composite end points (total mortality, disabling intracranial bleed [subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage], stroke [embolus, thrombosis, hemorrhage], disabling anoxic encephalopathy, cardiac arrest, major noncentral nervous system bleed), cost of therapy, and quality of life. AFFIRM will randomize therapy and follow 5,300 patients for an average of 3.5 years (minimum 2 years) at 200 sites in the United States and Canada.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Aged
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Atrial Fibrillation / complications
  • Atrial Fibrillation / mortality
  • Atrial Fibrillation / therapy*
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
  • Catheter Ablation
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / etiology
  • Electrocardiography, Ambulatory
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Arrest / etiology
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Humans
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic / methods
  • Patient Selection
  • Quality of Life
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods*
  • Recurrence
  • Research Design
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Fibrinolytic Agents