Elevated soluble CD14 receptors and altered cytokines in chronic heart failure

Am J Cardiol. 1997 May 15;79(10):1426-30. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(97)00159-8.


We hypothesized that in patients with chronic heart failure mesenteric venous congestion leads to increased bowel permeability, bacterial translocation, and thereby endotoxin release; the increased endotoxin challenge then causes immune activation with increased soluble CD14 levels and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production. Patients with high soluble CD14 levels (indicative of endotoxin-cell interaction) have markedly increased plasma levels of TNF-alpha, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, supporting this hypothesis.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Output, Low / blood*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Interferon-gamma / blood
  • Interleukins / blood
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukins
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Interferon-gamma