A systematic review of the literature on the surveillance of workers at presumed increased risk for respiratory cancer because of their exposure to asbestos revealed surveillance programs at the national, population, industrial, and factory (workplace) levels. Furthermore, 3 randomized chemoprevention trials involving workers exposed to asbestos were found. The nationwide programs to survey problems related to occupational exposure to asbestos were conducted in Europe. Some of the countries have policies for the surveillance of workers exposed either currently or formerly to asbestos. The results of the chemoprevention trials suggest that there are, as yet, no practical tools for efficient, safe chemoprevention of asbestos-induced respiratory malignancies.